Tag Archives: Jingdezhen

In Morning When the Lotus Bloom

With mid-July comes 小暑 shōsho (“minor heat”), the week’s that precede the hottest part of Summer. Even so, the heat of the day is hard to bear, leaving tea people to want to gather in the early morning.

In the dim light of dawn, a sense of coolness pervades, the muted colors and dark pools of shadow paring down the environment to its essentials. In the tearoom, this continues, with only the bare minimum used. A teabowl, a bamboo 茶筅 chasen (tea whisk), a well bucket containing cool water.

On this morning, as a light rain aids in keeping down the heat, I bring into the tearoom a small porcelain tea container from the 景德鎮 Jǐngdézhèn kiln, upon which blossoming lotus flowers have been painted in a deep cobalt blue. For my guest, this becomes a subtle nod that in July lotus viewing tea gatherings (蓮見の茶 hasu-mi no cha) are held in the early morning, right at the moment the floating aquatic flowers begin to bloom.

Holding it in my hand, I purify the porcelain container, the soft silk of the 仕服 shifuku gliding off its smooth surface.

Next I cleanse the 茶杓 chashaku.

I take pause, to let myself and the guest appreciate the bamboo of the teascoop, its skin dappled with tiny spots which resemble light rain.

Finally, I cleanse the teabowl, an antique 萩焼茶碗 Hagi-yaki chawan, the color of which is similar to the light blush pink of a lotus bud.

Placing the first scoop of tea into the teabowl feels like entering into a dark cavern; the dawn producing voluminous swaths of glowing light and soft shadows.

Whisking the tea into a foam, I can’t help but to peer down into the teabowl, appreciating the low peaks and minute textures that give rise.

Finished and ready for my guest, we sit to enjoy the glowing presence of the 抹茶 matcha, itself, like a blossoming lotus, fragrant and electric.

Quietly enjoyed, the teabowl is returned to be cleansed once again, a thin residue of tea foam still clinging to its interior.

Concluding the tea gathering becomes its own meditation. The sound of the 茶釜 chagama (spoutless tea kettle), the light patter of rain, the shifting of silk over the chashaku once more.

A final appreciation of the teaware and the light of the day begins to creep through the screen of 簾 sudare (woven blinds made of reeds).

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Filed under Ceramics, Japan, Matcha, Meditation, Tea

The Sun Hangs Highest in the Sky

As the year progresses, the subtle changes of the seasons mark the many “gateless gates” we pass through. While often too minute to notice from day-to-day, nature offers us clues. In Fall, the world becomes radiant in the final brilliant colors of trees and grasses. In Winter, colors mute, the soil hardens, the air becomes crisp, the plum blossom blooms. Spring marks the slow reemergence of life from its frozen dormancy. And in Summer, the world is fully awake, bursting with life.

As the sun hangs highest overhead today, marking the Summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, I find myself sitting in my tearoom, enjoying the vibrancy of the day outside. This activity is also felt internally, as I feel full of energy and excitement, having just received a collection of tea samples from a tea farmer based in Wuyishan, China. The small, individually-wrapped packets, each contain a different tea, a veritable treasure trove of flavors, each expressing the slight effects the shifting of one season to the next has on the tea plant.

Today, celebrating the solstice, I opt for a coppery 肉桂 Ròuguì, the name of which literally translates to “cinnamon”. While I will be brewing the tea hot, the effects of drinking it at the peak of Summer will be slightly cooling.

This desire to evoke a sense of “coolness” is revealed in my choice of teaware. An antique porcelain 宝瓶 hōhin (handless teapot) with a touch of 金継ぎ kintsugi (gold lacquer repair). To measure-out the tea leaves, I select an antique 白铜 báitóng (“white copper”) scoop in the shape of a banana leaf. To serve, I select a set of four blue-and-white cups from 景德镇 Jǐngdézhèn, each of which containing a vista reflective of a season. Spring and Summer.

Fall and Winter.

Warming each ceramic vessel, the water brings out their clean, porcelain sheen.

Placing the tea leaves atop the báitóng leaf, I admire their uniformity and the rich color they contain.

Placed into the warm hōhin, the twisted leaves release a soft, complex flavor. Notes of spices and cacao fill the air.

Pouring hot water over the leaves only intensifies the aroma.

Once fully steeped, I slowly issue-out the amber liqueur into each cup. Enjoying the deep color, matched with the swirling, nuanced fragrance of tea brings pause to my busy day and a cool calm to the heat of Summer.

Silently sipping in my tearoom, I enjoy the unfurling flavors of cinnamon, cloves, wet limestone and black walnut. Subtle, gentle, like the shifting of the seasons. On this, the longest day of the year.

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Filed under Ceramics, China, Oolong, Tea, Tea Tasting

Overflowing with History and Meaning: Appreciating Two Ruò Shēn Tasting Cups

Still coming down from the “high” (perhaps “tea drunkness”) of my time spent in Paris with my tea teacher, I’ve been slowly bringing-our the teawares he gifted me during the week-long studies I had with him. Having known my teacher for over 15 years now, he’s seen me through quite a large arc in my journey, both as a person and as a tea person!

He and I met between a bowl of matcha (he is a master if the 宗徧流 Sōhen-ryū school of 茶の湯 chanoyu/tea ceremony), but for much of our time together, he has witnessed the flowering of my practice in gong fu cha. Never wanting to discredit this, he has always encouraged my exploration of the dual arts of gong fu cha and chanoyu. Truth be told, he was first bitten by the “tea bug” back in the 1970s when he traveled to East Asia, first encountering gong fu cha during business meetings, where tea was served before deals were hatched. He knows the power of tea to transform the person and to create lasting relationships.

The teacups in question, given to me as a gift both “between two friends” and to commemorate my relationship between me and my partner (who lovingly accompanied me to Paris), symbolize his “encouragement” to continue to practice gong fu cha. However, the cups, beside occasionally containing tea, contain a story that is very much tied to the history of tea and, specifically, to gong fu cha.

These cups are not your everyday teacups. Instead, they are 若深珍藏 Ruò Shēn zhēncáng 品茗杯 pǐn míng bēi. Made famous during the 康熙 Kāngxī period (1661-1722) of the Qing Dynasty, Ruò Shēn zhēncáng wares were synonymous with some of the highest quality teaware available to the well-heeled masses of China at that time.

Perhaps named for the original potter who crafted these wares, or perhaps the individual who commissioned them, Ruò Shēn wares were made in or around the imperial kilns of Jingdezhen in Jiangxi province, at studio kilns (pictured above), though not designated for the court (i.e. not given the imperial mark). Instead, these wares were sold to those who could afford them.

Often emblazoned with crisp blue cobalt designs of flowers, birds, dragons or landscapes against an ivory-white porcelain, Ruò Shēn wares were highly prized by porcelain aficionados and, significantly, tea people, especially those practicing the then-developing art of gong fu cha.

Ruò Shēn tasting cups are mentioned throughout the Qing and early Republican period as being part of the “Four Treasures of Chaozhou Gong Fu Cha”. These “treasures” were 紫砂 zǐshā (“purple sand”) teapots from Yixing, Ruò Shēn tasting cups from Jingdezhen, a 楓溪砂桃 Fēng xī shā táo “Maple Creek” clay kettle, and 潮阳红泥炉 Cháoyáng hóng ní lú Chaoyang “red clay” stove. (All four “treasures” are pictured above, though I cannot claim ownership of this image)

Looking at these two cups, it is safe to say that they are probably not Kangxi (I offer that assessment up to the experts), but I will say they carry with them the joy of use that past tea connoisseurs would have admired. Their clean porcelain white with pale-bluish cast is beautiful to look upon, even when empty. Once filled, the color of the tea seems deeper, more “true”. They are light in the hand and easy to hold, adopting a shape that had been refined through the successive Song, Yuan, and Ming periods (960-1636). The designs, of rock and peony (and perhaps magnolia bud) are sweet, seasonal, and a nod to a scholar’s garden. The porcelain is so fine that these images are viewable in certain light through the inside of the cups given the ceramic’s slightly transparent nature.

To use pieces such as these, even if they might be a reproduction (old or new), is a joy. To have them at my tea table, and used in their intended purpose, completes a circle, of teaware as a skillfully-made form being able to perform their function. A tea practice such as gong fu cha is this, to see such objects as tools for honing one’s actions, thoughtfulness, and, perhaps, connoisseurship in the appreciation of tea and the meditation it creates. This was, maybe, was the intent of my tea teacher when he gifted these two cups to me. To enjoy them for the time I exist on this earth. To share them with those I love. To learn from them what they have to teach. And then to pass them on as we must all have to. This, the spirit of tea, found in two small Ruò Shēn tasting cups.

If you would like to learn more about Ruò Shēn porcelain, I recommend this blog post from Ruyi Studio, which offers greater detail.

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Filed under Ceramics, China, Education, History, Oolong, Tea, Tea Tasting

Making tea on a hot day

Jingdezhen teacup

(IMAGE: Young sheng pu-erh in a fine porcelain Jingdezhen teacup, perfect for a hot summer’s day)

Dear beloved blog readers,

Its hot. Its humid. Its a late summer’s day; a time when you might have a bright, dry morning, only to give way to a thick, moist, thunderstorm evening. With such extremes, one might think that drinking tea, a hot beverage, would only cause an added measure of unease. However, on days like these, tea can offer a cooling respite to the heat, you just need to know how to do it right. In this entry, I’ll offer some ideas that will help you to stay cool while still enjoying tea.

Summer Bowl

(IMAGE: A black Oribe-yaki “Horse Trough-shaped” (馬盥茶碗) summer teabowl is shallow, allowing for the tea to cool off quickly)

“In the summer, suggest coolness”: The 16th century Japanese teamaster Sen no Rikyu once noted “In the summer, suggest coolness. In the winter, warmth.” For making tea, this is crucial, as not only can places like Japan (or China, or Korea…or New York City for that matter) can get incredibly hot in the summer, but also the tea you make and the way you make it can change how heat affects you (and your guests). Rikyu had countless solutions for this, from moving the tea brazier away from the guests (placing the mizusashi, or cool water container, between the brazier and the guest, thus keeping the radiant heat of the brazier at a distance), to even using shallow teabowls to serve tea (as this would help to cool the tea down before drinking). Even having visual cues, such as using a crystal tea caddy (since crystal looks like ice), hanging flowers in baskets (to give a sense of “airiness”), or having a scroll with a “cooling” image or poem written on it was deemed helpful to this end. Practitioners of chanoyu are well aware of these strategies and it is reflected in how they offer tea on hot summer’s days.

Taipinghoukui

(IMAGE: Large and vibrant leaves of a semi-wild Tai Ping Hou Kui (太平猴魁) green tea, perfect for lower-temperature steeping)

Choose the “right” tea: The notion of a “right” tea for any occasion seems to be a hotly contested point among tea people. While I can safely say there is no “right” tea, there are aspects to consider when choosing a tea for a hot day. Teas that favor lower temperatures for brewing like green teas are ideal. Likewise, teas that might benefit by being steeped at a lower temperature could also work. Young sheng pu-erh teas, green oolongs, and even some white or red teas can produce amazing results! It is even said in traditional Chinese medicine that some teas (most teas outside of the more “neutral” pu-erh teas) are ying (or “cooling”) in energy. I find that greener teas tend to carry this quality the most, but this can differ from person to person.

Hohin

(IMAGE: A Japanese porcelain houhin (宝瓶) with kintsugi (金継ぎ) gold lacquer repair)

Selecting teaware: As mentioned before with the suggestion made by Rikyu, teaware can have a big effect on how tea is enjoyed in times of great heat. On hot days, I typically avoid using yixing teaware and, instead, use porcelain or even glass wares. Why? Simple thermodynamics. Whereas yixing wares are renowned for retaining heat (which is ideal for steeping strong brews of oolong, pu-erh, and black teas), porcelain and glass tend to give-off their heat, allowing for the hot water for tea to cool down. While this is ideal for green and white teas, with skill, one can brew higher-oxidized teas this way as well, resulting in smooth-tasting liqueurs, often with long-fading finishes (the huí gān 回甘, “returning dry/sweetness”) attributed to finer quality teas. Likewise, using wider and thinner tea cups, as well as water cooling vessels can help bring the temperature down for a more refreshing brew.

 

So, how do you beat the heat and still drink tea? I’d love to know your thoughts on this.

As you may have noticed, I left out any mention of “iced teas” or “cold-brew teas”. This was intentional as I plan on tackling this topic in its own wonderful future post!

Until then!

 

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Filed under Ceramics, Education, Tea Tasting